Tag Archives: Azure

Azure AD app wildcard Reply URL

Azure AD apps (a.k.a Azure Active Directory apps, a.k.a AAD apps) are an essential component when interacting with Office 365 data outside of SharePoint – Mail, Calendar, Groups, etc.

As an O365 developer I have found myself writing JavaScript code against AAD apps (using ADAl.js) and often, especially during development, found myself entering a long list of Reply URLs. Reply URLs must be specified for any location from which authentication to AAD occurs. From a practical standpoint this results in someone (an Azure Administrator) having to update the list of Reply URLs every time a web part is inserted into a page or a new site is provisioned which relies on an Azure AD app.

If this is not done, the user is redirected to Azure login failure with ‘The reply address … does not match the reply addresses configured for the application’.

Error when Reply URL is not correctly specified
Error when Reply URL is not correctly specified

Perhaps the following is documented elsewhere but I have not come across it – a Reply URL can be specified using wildcards!

Using a wildcard Reply URL when configuring an AAD app
Using wildcard Reply URLs when configuring an AAD app

Probably the most common use for this is to end a Reply URL with an asterisk (wildcard) which will permit any URL which begins with the characters preceding it.

e.g. https://tenant.sharepoint.com/*
This example would support any URL coming from any page in SharePoint Online from within the named tenant.

It is also possible to use the wildcard character elsewhere in the Reply URL string.
e.g. https://*.sharepoint.com/*
This example would support any URL coming from any page in SharePoint Online from within *any* tenant.

Armed with this knowledge, be responsible and limit strictly how it is utilised. The implementation of Reply URL is a security feature and it is important that only trusted locations are allowed to interact with your app. I recommend only using wildcard Reply URLs in development environments.

Paul.

HTTP 405 Error in .NET Web App

I was recently told that an web app I had developed was returning an HTTP 405 error upon being freshly deployed. It took me way too long to realise that cause of the issue came down to missing files. Specifically, the complete folder structure had been deployed however the files at the top level web root were missing. These are files are rather critical.

They are the web.config and global.asax

If you are seeing this error, ensure these files have been deployed correctly and aren’t corrupt as a first point of call.

Receiving an HTTP 405 in IE11
Receiving a 405 in IE11

For SEO HTTP 405

  • Chrome: The page you are looking for cannot be displayed because an invalid method (HTTP verb) is being used.
  • IE: HTTP 405 The website has a programming error. This error (HTTP 405 Method Not Allowed) means that Internet Explorer was able to connect to the website, but the site had a programming error.
  • Edge: HTTP 405 error That’s odd… Microsoft Edge can’t find this page

Paul.

Azure CDN integration with SharePoint, cache control headers max-age, s-maxage

After recently implementing an Azure-based solution to mitigate SharePoint Online’s poor image rendition performance by utilising Azure CDN (see Chris O’Brien’s post on this issue, see Fran R’s post on other Image Rendition issues) I’ve reached a few conclusions regarding setting appropriate cache control headers. It is important to reach a practical balance between performance and receiving updates to files.

Azure CDN logo

Before continuing it is important to understand the fundamental building blocks when using a CDN. At any time a file can be present in three location types: the blob or source file, the CDN endpoint(s), and users’ browser caches. In the case of Azure CDN, the source file must be a blob in Azure Blob Storage. Depending on the CDN/configuration it is likely that the file may be cached at many (dozens) of CDN endpoints dispersed around the globe. Without a CDN the only consideration is the cache timeout for files stored at the user’s browser cache. When considering a CDN we must also consider the cache timeout between the CDN endpoint and the source file.

Another important point to call out is that CDNs generally only push content to an endpoint when is it first requested: on-demand. This will incur a delay for the first user to request that asset from a given endpoint, while source blob is transferred to the endpoint. The impact of this will differ depending on the distance between the source blob and the CDN endpoint and the file size. It is this process that increasing the s-maxage header prevents (discussed below).

Relevant cache control headers

Definitions

  • max-age : Defines the period which, until reached, the client will used the cached file without contacting the server. ‘Client’ refers to a user’s browser cache as well as a CDN.
  • s-maxage : If provided, overrides max-age for CDNs only
  • public : Explicitly marks the file as not user specific
  • no-transform : Proxy servers may compress or encode images to improve performance or reduce bandwidth traffic. This header prevents this for occurring. It is preferable to avoid this header assuming that you can spare the effort to ensure the files being served are not affected adversely.

A good summary of the many remaining cache control headers that I didn’t feel were relevant to this post can be found here:
A beginners guide to HTTP cache headers

In practice

  • For an image that has been previously requested:
    • When s-maxage has not expired and max-age has not expired, server responds with 200 (OK), the file is not downloaded again [0ms]
    • When s-maxage has not expired but max-age has expired, server responds with 304 (not modified), the file is not downloaded again [<100ms]
    • When s-maxage has expired but max-age has not expired, server responds with 200 (OK), the file is not downloaded again [0ms]
    • When s-maxage has expired and max-age has expired and the blob has not changed, server responds with 304 (not modified), the file is not downloaded again [<100ms]
    • When s-maxage has expired and max-age has expired and the blob has changed, server responds with 200 (OK), the file is downloaded again [download image]
  • A request for an image will return 200 (OK) until max-age has expired and then 304 (not modified) for every subsequent request until the blob is updated. Once updated, this process repeats
  • If an existing image is updated, the longest a user can wait to see the updated image is
    • Without clearing browser cache: max-age + s-maxage
    • With clearing browser cache: s-maxage
  • If an user views an image from the CDN for the first time, it is only guaranteed to be the latest version of that image if the blob hasn’t been updated in the last s-maxage
  • SharePoint library images are served with a max-age of 24 hours
  • As SharePoint library images are not served via a CDN they have an effective s-maxage of 0

My recommendations

Keeping all of the above in mind, I feel that the most important factor is to replicate the experience that users expect from images being served from the SharePoint environment. This can presented as a couple of simple rules:

  1. max-age + s-maxage = 24 hours = 86400 seconds
  2. s-maxage is as low as possible whilst satisfying bandwidth and performance targets (especially for locations most distant to the source blob)

For a recent SharePoint/CDN, I used the following cache control headers:

  • max-age: 23 hours
  • s-maxage: 1 hour
  • public
  • no-transform

Which looks like this:
no-transform,public,max-age=82800,s-maxage=3600

Setting the cache headers served by Azure CDN and Azure Blob Storage

When working with cache control headers in Azure, they are set on the blob itself. It is not a CDN configuration setting.

Paul.

Azure Service Management REST API vs Azure API Management REST API

Do not be confused! The Azure Service Management REST API and the Azure API Management REST API are completely different. Yes, they may have confusingly similar names but they service completely different purposes, support different authentication protocols, and are surfaced via different endpoint domains.

Question mark

The Azure Service Management REST API

What can I do with it?

This service supports actions for managing Azure resources such as web apps or storage accounts. Think of it as an endpoint for the actions you might otherwise perform manually via the (Classic or New) Azure Portal.

What do the endpoints look like?

Service request URIs will be of the form: https://management.azure.com /subscriptions/…

How does authentication work?

Service authentication is achieved using OAuth via the use of a Bearer access token in the Authorization header. The app principal is an Azure Active Directory application. The AAD app must be given ‘permissions to other applications’ for ‘Windows Azure Service Management API’. As the only grant-able permissions are ‘delegated permissions’ (App+User) rather than ‘application permissions’ (App-only), this API can only be called from within a user context and not, for example, from the context of a web job.

Configuring Azure AD App Permissions
Configuring AAD App Permissions

The Azure API Management REST API

What can I do with it?

The API Management Service supports publishing APIs to consumers by providing an ID and secret key ‘shared signature’ authentication mechanism very similar to that used by Amazon or Instagram for their (public, pending approval) APIs. An API Management Service instance provides benefits like management of users, groups, products (endpoints), and subscriptions. There is then a REST API for managing these users, groups, products, and subscription that the API Management Service provides – this is referred to as the API Management REST API.

What do the endpoints look like?

Service request URIs will be of the form: https://{servicename}.management .azure-api.net/…

How does authentication work?

Service authentication is achieved via the use of a Shared Access Signature access token in the Authorization header. The identifier and secret key required to generated a request signature are available via API Management Service instance. Access to the API must be explicity allowed by checking the ‘Enable API Management REST API’ via the API Management Service publisher portal.

Enable API Management REST API
Enable API Management REST API
Credit to Microsoft Azure Documenation

Read more

Ok, so just reading the above really won’t be enough to get you firing off requests but hopefully it will provide enough clarity that you fully understand how to interact with which API.

Service Management REST API Reference

API Management REST API

Vaguely related, I’ve recently blogged about posting authenticated requests to the Amazon Product Advertising API in .NET

I will post about using the Service Management API along will app configuration and full code samples for authentication in the near future. I will link to that post from here.

Paul.